Recognizing safety issues concerning food-borne diseases, many countries established quality standards for dairy products to protect consumer health. In Ethiopia, the smallholder milk production system accounts for 97% of the country's annual milk production. Most of the milk production and processing therefore take place at rural smallholder household level and marketing in rural areas with inaduquate required dairy infrastructure. Very little is known about production and handling conditions, and quality of products manufactured under such conditions. This book therefore provides information on hygienic practices followed by various dairy value chain actors during production and handling of milk and milk products, and their microbial and chemical properties. The information reported in this book should be of importance for further investigation in identifying species of economic and public health importance and thereby making improvement interventions. The book should therefore be of particular interest and useful to producers of different scale, concerned domestic and international research and development organizations, graduate students and relevant public bodies.