After an overview of sanitation and health in developing countries, this book presents an in-depth investigation on Varanasi city. The first chapter gives an overview of physico-cultural settings of Varanasi. In the second chapter, we deal with house types and their distribution. The present study is based on the primary data collected through interviewing 1008 households which cover all the 14 sanitary wards, and all cross-section of the society in the city. Distribution of sanitary facilities is presented in chapter 3. Perception towards sanitary facilities is investigated in chapter 4. Health and sanitation are examined in chapter 5. Chapter 6 deals with health care facilities. We investigate planning and management in chapter 7. This chapter deals with planning and management of urban centres with a case study of Varanasi city. Various aspects of sanitation, health, housing, slums, solid waste, sewerage system, water supply, health care, slaughter houses, education perception etc. are presented vis-à-vis their planning and management. Summary and conclusion are given in the last chapter.