Mastitis is one of the major economic burdens for dairy farmers around the world. In developing countries like Nepal, its impact and prevention measures are lacking due to a dearth of knowledge in its epidemiology. Environment also plays critical role in its pathogenesis. Thus this study clarifies the scenario of mastitis in cattle and buffaloes in Nepal with due consideration of environmental factors and thus recommends possible preventive measures. This study will provide a baseline study material for researchers in this field and a alert material for the real farmers too. Especially, during the monsoon months in Nepal, mastitis springs up abruptly. So farmers when made aware of this disease in time by government and non-government agencies working in livestock sector, it can contribute to reduce the economic loss that the farmers have been bearing since years.