The search for better ways to manufacture components has increased the level of automation in manufacturing industries. This trend involves the use of computer controlled machines (CNC) and automated material handling devices. One of the widespread applications of automation is the installation and use of robotic cells: A manufacturing cell consisting of a number of machines and a material handling robot. This book considers a flexible robotic manufacturing cell in which the machines are CNCs. “Flexibility” plays a crucial role in such cells. We investigate the productivity gain attained by the additional flexibility introduced by the CNCs. Single criteria models of maximizing the throughput rate as well as bi-criteria models including the minimization of manufacturing cost besides the throughput rate are considered. Furthermore, cell design problems including the determination of the number of machines in the cell and the layout of the cell are also considered. This book should be useful for professionals in the field of Scheduling especially who work on Scheduling in Modern Manufacturing Systems and Robotic Cells or anyone in the industry who utilizes such a manufacturing system.