Economic crisis in 1997 constitutes the remark of the school reform in Indonesia. The idea of school-based management (SBM), indicated as school reform, has been implemented in Western countries since 1970s and has been under unceasing debate among international scholars. Some agree; while some others do not. The Government of Indonesia (GOI), however, still implemented SBM in 2000s and Indonesians seem to agree with it, which is indicated by the limited or even an absence of debate over this concept in Indonesia. This research aims at investigating two main things, they are: the reasons underlying the implementation of SBM throughout Indonesia and the implementation processes of SBM in Indonesia. In fact, SBM in Indonesia leads to ambivalence since it morally contradicts to Indonesian values. However, Indonesians keep on tending not to contend against the idea of SBM. Furthermore, SBM policy in Indonesia is ideologically driven by Neoliberalism - an ideology which is completely different from Pancasila as Indonesian ideology. What a fantastic finding!