The conception of secularism has been fragile and flexible; it varies from country to country. Its scope and implication is too difficult to define in most legal systems including Ethiopia. This author, thus, tries to acquaint readers with the basic concept of separation of state and religion. He also tries to demarcate the line between state and religious matters. This book is useful for researchers, lawyers and academicians interested in the issues of secularism in general and particularly in Ethiopia.