The descriptions of unaccentuated personality traits have been added to the personality accentuations according to Carl Leonhard’s conception. Psychological compensators have been established. Investigation of twins has shown that accentuated and unaccentuated traits mainly depend on genetic factors. The special combinations of traits that are predispositions to neurotic and psychosomatic disorders have been found. The new test may be used in practice of psychologists, psychotherapists, psychiatrists, in psychosomatic medicine and for self-testing. The book may be of interest for a wide circle of readers.