Sandstones are important hydrocarbon (oil and gas) reservoirs of the world’s 50% petroleum. The hydrocarbons discoveries so far in Bangladesh are located in the reservoir sands of the Neogene Surma Group. From 22 discovered gas fields in Bangladesh, 10 gas fields are located in the Surma Basin (Bangladesh). At present 80% of the country’s discoveries of natural gas and 95% of the condensate reserves are found in the Surma Basin. Reservoir quality is one of the key controls in petroleum exploration and, therefore, it is important to have a detailed understanding of the various diagenetic controls and their effects. The book presents detailed sedimentological features (depositional facies, sedimentary environment, texture, petrophysical properties and petrographical characteristics with particular emphasize on diagenetic evolution) of the Hydrocarbon Sandstone Reservoirs of the Neogene Surma Group from the Surma Basin, Bangladesh. Compaction induced diagenesis and reservoir quality of Miocene-age sandstones of Himalayan origin could be of interest to the people of Reservoir Geology and Energy sector.