Testicular cancer presents real challenges due to its unique descriptive epidemiology and relatively unknown etiology. The social and epidemiological importance of testicular tumors has grown with the rapid increase of its incidence in the population of younger males between 20 and 40 years, that results in long term disability and/or the invalidization of the fertile male population. Survival for testicular cancer patients is better than for all other malignant diseases, but significant differences worldwide have been documented. Early diagnosis is determined by the biologic features of the tumor, patients’ knowledge about the disease, and the availability of general practitioners and specialists to analyze initial symptoms to determine a correct diagnosis and begin adequate treatment. Surgical exploration and orchiectomy is consider as definitive diagnostic procedure and the first step of the treatment. The individual treatment strategy is based on the TNM classification and the classification of the IGCCCG based on prognostic factors. The patient must be well informed about these modalities, their acute and late toxicities and overall outcome.