Children of immigrants account for nearly one in five of all Canadian school children, and it is projected that by 2017 one in three children will fit this description. Given the numbers involved, how these children adapt and the educational pathways they take will clearly have profound implications for Canadian society. Unfortunately, considering the size and ubiquity of immigrant populations in schools across Canada, relatively little research has examined the academic motivation, academic self-concept, and academic achievement of immigrant children in comparison to their non-immigrant peers. Moreover, educators tend to stress the socioeconomic and cultural factors affecting immigrant children''s academic achievement to the exclusion of the psychological factors also at play in the lives of immigrant children. In other words, educational initiatives in Canada emphasize the distal factors at the expense of psychological factors, which are proximal. Recent research in social psychology, however, has demonstrated that achievement gaps may be a product of a more general cognitive process that may, as a result, be more amenable to intervention than previously thought.