Mining is a profitable business, not only for large global players, but also for small-scale operators, who exploit alluvial deposits in a semi-mechanized manner. However, literature is virtually non-existent when it comes to the investment assessment of such small-scale projects, which is why this book has been written. First, an introduction to the mining business is given and alluvial deposits are explained. Secondly, the entire placer mining process and its inputs and outputs are qualitatively analysed by means of an economic value chain analysis. In a third step, a real-life business case example is examined quantitatively, in order to evaluate the economics of alluvial mining projects. Furthermore, core economic drivers and their impact on financial Net Present Value are identified by use of a self-built dynamic calculation model. In a final step, the mining endeavour is embedded into a particular geographic context to measure the economic effects of a specific environment.