Pharmaceutical industries discharge a variety of highly toxic and persistent organics in their wastewater. presence of antibiotics in pharmaceutical wastewater is affecting on treatment processes. Chapter one is an overview about the wastewater treatment processes . Chapter two gives a description of Samarra Drugs Factory, source of pharmaceutical wastewater, quality and quantity of untreated wastewater. Chapter three describes the literatures concerning types of biological treatment processes and the previous studies. Chapter four gives an idea about the experimental works.Chapter five is intended to present the results and discussion, concerning the removal of COD(chemical oxygen demand), BOD (biochemical oxygen demand),Tss (total suspended solids) and other pollutants by upflow anaerobic filter, anaerobic/ aerobic removal of COD and BOD, the biogas yield, the effective depth of anaerobic filter and the design of full scale upflow anaerobic filter. Finally chapter six presents the conclusions and recommendations for further studies.The target of this work is treating of pharmaceutical waste water by sequential anaerobic/aerobic biological treatment.