People who live and interact with local resources over generations tend to develop local wisdom and knowledge about local resources. Much of the knowledge is stored in unwritten forms and preserved in oral traditions such as such as song and stories. Long before the emergence of scientific-based nature conservation, many indigenous groups, especially in the tropics, have developed resource management practices that were compatible with conserving nature. However, new development approaches and modern knowledge system tend to neglect and belittle the indigenous systems thus marginalized the existence of some traditional resource systems that have persisted over generations. This book describes socio cultural and traditional natural resource management practiced by Serampas, an indigenous group who occupy a highland of mid-west Sumatra. The book analyses the changes of Serampas traditional practices over time and reveals some values that can be developed and revitalized to address the current socio culture and environmental development issues.