The global spread of human immuno-deficiency virus, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, has been accompanied by a major increase in the number of new cases of tuberculosis. Those people who have HIV infection as well as TB when they die, that is TB and HIV co-infection, are internationally reported as having died of HIV infection. Effective case detection and treatment of TB should therefore be a priority for HIV programmes, to prevent, diagnose, and treat TB in people living with HIV, their families and the communities. But this has not been well implemented in most developing countries, resulting in increasing trend of new TB infections worldwide. Ethiopia is the most populous landlocked country in the world with a surface area of 1,127,127 square kilometres. TB is prevalent in Ethiopia, ranking the country as 7th among the world’s 22 worst burdened countries, and one of the top three in Africa. The prevalence of all forms of TB is estimated at 579 per 100,000. In 2007, TB case detection rate for the country was only 34% and the death rate was 92 per 100,000 people.