Adolescence is a fascinating period of life that marks the transition from being a dependent child to becoming an independently functioning adult. According to 2001 census of India, the population of adolescents (10-19 years) constitutes nearly 22 per cent of the total population of India. The adolescent girls constitute more than 21 per cent of total female in India. Among the adolescent girls in India, rural adolescent girls constitute 72 per cent. in Tamil Nadu, the adolescents constitute nearly 19.5 per cent of the total population. In India, marriage at an early age is still common and unfortunately institutions do not provide any education regarding safe motherhood and child care. Adolescent girls are trained in different vocations and remain ignorant about mother and child care.Reproductive health problems are particularly acute for adolescent girls, because they have the highest levels of unmet need for contraception and are the most vulnerable to unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. The state and civil society are working to enhance the sexual and reproductive health of the adolescents.