Fresh water is an indispensable part of the hydrosphere and the terrestrial system. Water is a finite resource for which there is no substitute; its total volume cannot be increased and no living thing can exist without it. Global water usage is becoming unsustainable at present levels, which are still rapidly increasing due to the world’s swelling population, and per capita usage that is increasing with prosperity. The other issue of great concern is the uneven availability and unsustainable use of water, exacerbated by problems such as pollution, deforestation and desertification. This book has identified equity as the best way of resolving complicated issues regarding water use, particularly in the context of shared watercourse. Ind-Nepalese water relations are used as a case study.