This book presents a study to determine the prevalence and associated factors for short birth spacing among Malay women who delivered at Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), Malaysia. A cross- sectional study was conducted on 355 Malay women and their husbands in 2005. Short birth spacing refers to a birth spacing of less than 24 months. The study found a median duration of birth spacing of 26 months and the prevalence of short birth spacing was 45.1%. Majority of the women and husbands had poor knowledge on family planning. In addition, 69.0% of the women and 74.9% of the husbands had unsatisfactory attitude towards family planning. The significant associated factors for short birth spacing were women''s age, parity, breastfeeding duration, history of contraception and history of abortion between second last and the last delivery. Women with higher parity, those who breastfed their second last baby for less than one year duration and those not using contraception were more likely to have short birth spacing. Increase age and history of abortion were less likely to have short birth spacing.