The Turkish Straits, which are comprised of the Strait of Istanbul, the Strait of Canakkale and the Sea of Marmara, are one of the most strategically important waterway systems in the world. The Straits have a very narrow and winding shape that gives them the semblance of a river. In fact, they are one of the most hazardous and difficult to navigate waterways in the world. Together with these geographical properties, especially regarding the Strait of Istanbul, local meteorological conditions, dense and increasing transit and local traffic, vessel and cargo characteristics and a city with immense cultural heritage and 10 million plus population surrounding it, greatly increase the risks associated with maritime activities. This study involves a simulation based investigation to assess the effects of various traffic rules, regulations, parameters, vessel arrival patterns and density, support resources and environmental conditions, on the Strait maritime traffic, within the framework of scenarios. It is intended to support strategic decision making regarding the maritime traffic, as well as to provide a platform on which to build a comprehensive risk assessment and analysis model.