Small-scale forestry in the Philippines Deforestation and poverty are major problems in rural Philippines. Rural development programs have focussed on community and private forestry development as a central means of tackling the problems of poverty and environmental decline yet their outcomes have been erratic. Many programs have failed to account for the variations in the socioeconomic characteristics and attitudes of those in rural communities. This book presents a study of the factors that affect forestry in the Philippines and results of case studies of households'' socioeconomic circumstances and forestry development attitudes in four communities. A typology of households was developed, describing the nature of variations in households both between and within communities. A series of recommendations are made for reforms to improve development outcomes. The study provide a practical example for development program administrators and practitioners of how to better understand rural households'' needs and preferences in relation to rural development programs in the Philippines and elsewhere.