Climate change does not feature prominently in the mainstream development and water management literature, so much so that robust strategies have not been developed to adapt to the projected impacts nor have the consequences of future adaptation costs on water affordability and access been investigated.This book examines the impact of climate change on water resource management in small towns. Specifically it suggests that climate change be integrated into existing planning frameworks in order that small towns build resilient strategies against projected climate change impacts. An approach is proposed for small towns to develop their water adaptation response that includes an assessment of existing responses to climate variability. By screening these against qualitative and quantitative criteria, robust strategies can be identified that will ensure sustainable water supplies under projected climate change impacts. By drawing on a case study of a small town in South Africa, it is demonstrated that the consequence of climate change impacts on water resources is indeed an economic issue when it comes to meeting projected water demand and providing an equitable service.