Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is the fear of social situations that may cause humiliation or embarrassment. It is the most common anxiety disorder. Being a relatively new area of research, its etiology, effects, and treatments are not clearly understood. Moreover, SAD has been shown to have a higher female to male rate ratio. This book gives a fairly detailed background of SAD, its clinical diagnosis, and its different types with a detailed review of the physiological mechanisms and the psychosocial factors that play a role in it. The influence of parenting styles, adverse events, and culture on SAD development are reviewed with close attention to the gender-role theory. The different medications and psychotherapy techniques used to treat SAD are also reviewed. A special focus on the gender differences and specifically those differences that may influence SAD and its treatment is made. The book concludes with a discussion of the role of gender differences in SAD and how these differences should be taken into account during treatment. Recommendations for future studies are also included. This book is meant to be a comprehensive review for anybody who is interested in this field.