As many Author works, social capital as a ‘resource'' or ‘enabling one'' that functions at wider levels- community and society as a whole in which social network, trust and mutuality are vital. Yet, who exactly involving in the process of nurturing social capital? Whether they do represent for the whole community, or just only elite capture? What is nature of motivations to build social capital; then what are ends of the social capital built? Capacity building for CBOs as a ‘means'' and an ‘end''. But, who ultimately access and control over decision-making. These CBOs whether or not have policies with the manner of democracy and pro-poor? In what contexts participation for strengthening local social capital taken place? Over the last ten years, the number of Vietnamese NGOs, with capable features that have involved in stimulating CBOs rapidly increases. However,the above questions must be still raised. This book presents the methodological effort of Center for Indigenous Knowledge Research and Development in enriching social capital for the sake of security of livelihood of the poor via strengthening CBOs in the Vietnam Socialist Communist context.