This book aims to investigate the influences of modernity, religion, and the ancestral culture on the poems of the contemporary Indonesian poet Mustofa Bisri, and to describe the portraits of the Indonesian society presented in the poems, in relation to the three forces. The book is focused on Bisri’s social critique of modernity, religion and the ancestral culture, and/or his critique of issues associated with the three "languages." Bisri’s poems portray a picture of Indonesian society that is modern, religious and traditional. They also communicate his humour, critique or satire towards the people of Indonesia who uncritically accept modernity, religion and the ancestral culture. Bisri, however, does not condemn these three forces; rather, he wants to “remind” us of the potential dangerous Indonesians will face if they accept modernity, religion and the ancestral culture uncritically.