In Batticaloa, Sri Lanka, 20 years of civil war negatively affected the livelihood of fishing communities and ultimately rendered them more vulnerable to an external shock like the tsunami, 2004. The social resilience of coastal communities were subsequently further eroded by the tsunami. There exists very little academic literature on the history of fishing and coastal processes, the lack of information pertaining to resources and the level of exploitation technology and socio-economic aspects of fisheries has hindered the planning and development of an effective management scheme. This book, therefore, analyze the socio-ecological resilience of coastal communities and ecosystem, how the conflict and peace situation appears to affect fishing and how the post tsunami rehabilitation activities affected the fishing sector. Participatory Fish Stock Assessment was used first time to understand more about fisheries resources in the past and future. This book should be especially useful to professionals in the field of natural resource management and anyone who may be interesting in working with social- ecological resilience analysis.