This is a study of Tanzanian social security law. The study starts from the premise that current social security law in Tanzania is inadequate to protect the citizenry and needs to be reformed. This need is based on the fact that the Tanzanian government has both national and international obligations to guarantee people’s social protection. The study uses the South African experience of social security issues to reflect on the problems facing Tanzania. The identified lessons will be used to inform the legal reform endeavours in Tanzania. The book addresses issues such as low coverage of the population, risks and benefits, inadequacy of benefits, lack of portability of social security benefits, bad governance and the problem of fragmentation. On account of these issues, it is suggested that there is need to embrace the comprehensive social security concept on which, South Africa’ constitutionalisation of social security rights offers fine lessons for Tanzania. Further, the book advances the linkages between adoption of the comprehensive social security concept and constitutionalisation of socio-economic rights and how these two can help in solving the issues under consideration.