The main aspects investigated in the present work are the distribution and concentration pattern of the major tribal groups (Boro, Rabha, Karbi, Dimasa, Deori, Mising, Tiwa and Sonowal kachari) residing in the state of Assam; the pattern of inter and intra- tribal variations in respect of development and social change; the pattern of socio-cultural characteristics, more particularly among the female section; and the main causes of their socio-economic backwardness. In addition, the pattern of social change among the women belonging to major tribal groups is assessed through direct observation in the field and available secondary data. The book altogether has seven chapters. The first two chapters give a theoretical framework of the study and geographical background of Assam. The third chapter presents the distribution pattern of the selected tribal groups.The fourth, fifth and sixth chapters discusses the prevailing social, cultural and economic characteristics and pattern of social change among the tribal women of the state. Finally, a synthesis of the whole work including a few suggestions have been presented in the last chapter.