The gender gap has been one of the major challenges of the education sector particularly in developing countries. As part of the developing countries Ethiopia also experiences this challenge in the education sector. Although many books have been written about the gender gap in education in Ethiopia, Most of the available literatures seem to present as if the gender gap in schools is always in favor of male students. This study has two Purposes: First to compare the gender gap across different types of schools in Addis Ababa and analyze the socio-economic conditions that contribute to such gender gap in different types of schools. Second the study examines the relationship of students’ socio-economic background and their performance in schools. According to the findings of the study, the gender gap in performance in schools is a reflection of the socio-economic background of students. This book will be valuable asset for students and those who are interested in the education and development related issues and make further research in the field.