Efforts to build nationhood - a political process for searching of identity and historical roots, demarcation of borders, creation of state bodies have been painful and long as usual with post imperialistic states. The Central Asian states tried to abolish soviet legacy, sometimes in violent manner (Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan), with implications to their relations with neighboring countries. The competing external forces such as Russia, USA and Europe have created conflicting cooperation regimes in the region. At present, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan are competing for regional leadership and trying to receive a favorable support from Russia, China and West. The Water is becoming a crucial element of the region's future. Author have tried to present some practical aspects of water management in the region. The book is results of the research work of author 2001-2012. Author would like to thank numerous co-authors and colleagues for their great support. Special thanks goes to Ms. Venera Shayhullina, whose great help on editing of the book was tremendous.