On 1st January, 2014 13% or 282 876 people out of all Latvian population were former U.S.S.R citizens who do not have the citizenship of the Republic of Latvia or that of any other country. Most often this group has been denominated as Latvian non-citizens. The study gives an in-depth understanding of the barriers and motivation of Latvian non-citizens to naturalize or not, and attitudes of non-citizens towards living and integrating in Latvian society. The following dimensions of citizenship has been analysed - status of citizenship, citizenship as sense of belonging and practice of citizenship. The study involved the principles of participatory research approach. One of the main findings was on importance and positive feedback of discussions and dialogue among ethnic Latvians, Russians, citizens and non-citizens in Latvia.