This book documents the realisation of software measurement standards in surface metrology, as part of the National Measurement System in the UK. Those standards, in the form of the reference dataset with reference results, have been developed by both simulation and experimental methods. The analysis of associated uncertainty has been undertaken through a series of case studies. Some decision rules have been proposed to guide the use of software measurement standards. Those developed software measurement standards provided a novel route to demonstrate the metrological traceability for most surface profile parameters which has not been tried before. It is expected that this route could be implemented for demonstrate all surface parameters in further development. Currently, those standards are distributed via internet by National Measurement Laboratory (NPL) in the United Kingdom.