Soil is the most fundamental and basic resource. Traditionally, the soil’s main function has been as a medium for plant growth. Now, along with the increasing concerns of food security, soil has multi- functionality including environmental quality, the global climate change, and repository for urban/industrial waste. Soil supports a complex ecosystem, which supports the plants on the surface and creates new soil by breaking down rocks and sand. This microscopic ecosystem has co-evolved with the plants to collect and store water and nutrients in a form usable by plants. This Glossary of Soil and Environmental Sciences depended on different glossaries (such as Glossary of Crop Science Terms and Glossary of Soil Science Terms). This illustrated glossary provides definitions of commonly used terms related to soils and environmental sciences written for students and teachers with a background in biology. We hope that this glossary is useful as a learning tool to the student attempting to assimilate the vast vocabulary of soil science, agronomy, plant science, and environmental sciences.