Land degradation and soil erosion are significant environmental problems affecting agricultural productivity and livelihood in Malawi. A number of soil fertility improvement technologies are being promoted by the Ministry of Agriculture and non governmental organization, in order to improve agricultural productivity and food security. In spite of the growing awareness of low cost soil fertility technologies, the rate of adoption and continued use of the technologies remain limited. The thesis examines farmer''s perception of the current level of soil fertility and factors effecting farmers use of different soil fertility improvement technologies, using example of farmers from Machinga and Zomba Districts, in Malawi. The results provide insights for designing appropriate strategies, policies and programmes aimed at promoting adoption of soil fertility improvement technologies.