The main aim of this book is to introduce the reader how investigating the major morphology, physical and chemical properties of soils'' are used to classify soils. Soils are one of the most valuable resources of the nation. For agricultural crops, soils serve as a medium which is capable of physically supporting plants as well as acting as a store house for the water and nutrient resources. In areas like Ethiopia, soil management practices, designed to meet the food and fiber needs of an increasing population, have taxed the resiliency of natural processes. In order to assure sustained production and increased yield, the effects of our use of soil must be understood; information about a certain area of land becomes an essential component. To this end, soils must be classified based on their morphological features, changes in soils properties must be measured, and the data obtained should be correctly interpreted. It is only when we have adequate knowledge on the soils'' physical, chemical and morphological characteristics that we can manage to their potential and limitation, and there by maximizing yield.