Book annotates about an intense forest-dieback incidence that has threatened the existence of a montane forest in Sri Lanka. This ecosystem is unique in terms of its richness with extremely rare species of plants and animals in the world. Outcome of a comprehensive investigation done about the dieback – key causes behind it – effective management strategies to mitigate the problem are discussed. The strong link between forest-dieback and the contamination of the soil by heavy metals – Cadmium (Cd) and Lead (Pb) which enter in to the forest soil with rain falling down through the polluted air is discussed. Critical levels of soil Pb and organic matter in relation to the vigor of the forest stands are provided. The vital role played by the organic matter in the forest soil in mitigating toxic effects of the contaminants is illuminated. In fact, crucial information for successful reforestation programs in dieback areas of forests is provided.