Water pollution is a serious threat to mankind in the present scenario and, hence, many techniques are in use for water treatment. Out of them the adsorption is a commonly used method as it is simple, fast, and universal in nature. Typically, activated carbon is used as a perfect adsorbent for wastewater treatment but it is overpriced and requires regeneration. The regenerated carbon exhibits lower adsorption capacity with further management problem of the effluent obtained from its regeneration. These facts have grown interest in the search for solid waste based low cost alternatives of activated carbon that can be used for water pollutant removal. This book tells how (i) to develop low cost adsorbents from waste materials (ii) to remove toxic pollutants by using developed low cost adsorbents (iii) to optimize adsorption parameters for the maximum removal of pollutants by using developed low cost adsorbent through batch process (iv) to transfer batch adsorption conditions to the column studies; to evaluate the feasibility of the developed adsorption system in real samples (v) to ascertain adsorption mechanism for applying the developed adsorption system effectively & practically.