Solid waste management has become a deep rooted and diversified socio-economic problem for developing countries'' cities. This book examined what factors influenced the effectiveness of micro and small scale enterprises'' (MSEs'') involvement in solid waste management in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Collection of solid waste is mainly carried out by MSEs in Addis Ababa. Selected sample MSEs were divided into best and least performing based on the criteria developed by Addis Ababa Sanitation Administration Agency. The results from the whole membership data and interviews indicated that gender difference in each MSE had its own effect on their performance difference because women had additional reproductive and social roles unlike their men counterparts. The book advocates for application of gender based affirmative action for improved solid waste management system through proper monitoring of the service. Finally, the book suggests appropriate lines of action on the provision of technical support, increase in public awareness and provision of facilities and ensures sustainability of MSEs driven solid waste management.