Agricultural production almost needs to double in the twenty-first century not only to feed the growing world population but also because per capita food consumption is expected to increase by half in developing countries. This requires a drastic increase in agricultural production, which is the basis for protein sources. The increase in food consumption including carbohydrates and proteins is due to a universal desire to diversify the diet when per capita income increases. China is the best example, where consumption food consumption has doubled over the last two decades and is still growing. Most agricultural scientists are confident that the world’s population can be adequately fed, and that most food can be produced locally, ensuring the livelihood of farmers and food processors. This requires that agriculture, more than ever before, relies on science and technology, with agricultural intensification as the route to meet mankind’s food and fiber needs. The book in hand can furnish baseline information on biotechnology & its application for enhancing yield with less pressure on the environment. Therefore, it can be useful for Agri. graduates, policy makers etc.