The name of the new synthetic discipline that integrates physics and information theory is the "Physical Informatics» (FI). FI is information background of physics: informatics laws have general, universal character, operate in all possible universes with different physical laws. Informatics laws precede and restricted physical laws. Along with matter and energy the Universe contains, includes information. Information is an integral part of the Universe. Each physical system along with physical characteristics has information characteristics. Information is inseparably linked with matter and energy. Information is physical heterogeneity. The information characteristics of heterogeneity: Shannon’s information entropy, information divergence, joint entropy, mutual information. FI is science of information in physical, chemical and living systems. The submitted works include the foundations of FI. Informatics and physical laws together will allow opening all secrets of nature. The book is devoted for professionals in the field of informatics, physics, as well as for students, post-graduate students, which are interested in the bases and new ideas of natural sciences.