The Carbon cycle holds center stage in many global change studies due to rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide and its role in influencing climate and determining food, fiber and wood supply for human use through plant productivity. Highly unusual variations in the global carbon balance over last few decades have prompted much research on the dynamics of carbon cycle. Terrestrial ecosystems play an important role in global carbon budgets. This book presents a detailed research study undertaken for improving our understanding of agroecosystem and forest carbon cycle in India. It includes a detailed assessment of past and ongoing landuse and landcover changes and their effects on agroecosystem carbon cycle in Indo-Gangetic plains and estimation of biomass, phytomass carbon and soil carbon pools, litterfall carbon flux, and long-term net carbon release in Indian forests at regional and national scales. The environmental, economic and societal importance of the carbon cycle has led to numerous research initiatives at national and international levels. This book is very useful and informative to researchers in the field of biogeochemical carbon cycle and global change studies.