Many natural and novel biotechnological systems are composed of mesoscopic bio and optoelectronic devices or elements. Bio and optoelectronic systems are different complex systems in their composition and application but they have surprising similarities in terms of their spatio-temporal dynamics and control. Their behaviour can easily switch between stable regime to chaos by changing internal and external influencing factors. These book provide a fundamentally analysis of the mechanism relevant for the complex dynamics of the two active systems and a schemes to control them. Space-time simulations of the dynamics of molecular motors and semiconductor lasers reveal the influence of internal and external forces on their spatio- temporal dynamics and demonstrate that a suitable configuration can lead to an efficient spatio-temporal control.