“Specialization in Collective Behavior Systems” describes a novel method called: Collective Neuro-Evolution (CONE) that operates within computer simulation to solve collective behavior problems. A collective behavior problem is a task that can only be solved by multiple agents (computer programs) working cooperatively. The book''s topic is situated in the neuro-evolution research field: the intersection of evolutionary computation, and neural computation research. Given a collective behavior problem, CONE designs multi-agent behavior such that agents cooperate in order to solve the problem. CONE works via adapting agent behavior and agent interactions during a computer simulation, and purposefully facilitates and uses specialization that emerges as agents interact. Using emergent specialization as a problem solving mechanism allows CONE to outperform related methods that also solve computer simulated collective behavior problems.