The whole scientific contribution includes detailed pharmacognostical evaluation of Ayurvedic crude drug 'Daruharidra' with the following objectives 1. To lay down the standards of ‘Daruharidra’ i.e. Berberis aristata and its allied species viz. B. asiatica; B. chitira; B. lycium for the quality control of their market samples. 2. A survey and procurement of the market samples of 'Daruharidra' from different herbal drug markets of India. To check the identity and quality of these commercial samples. 3. Identification of adulterants/substitutes among these commercial samples. ‘Daruharidra’ is botanically equated to Berberis aristata but other species of Berberis viz. B. asiatica, B. chitria and B. lycium are also being used in name of 'Daruharidra' in different places of India. In this context above four Berberis species were collected from Western Himalayas and their commercial samples were procured from reputed markets of the country (sold in name of 'Daruharidra'). These samples were subjected to detailed pharmacognostical evaluation. This piece of work is a complete monograph on commercially important Berberis species.