Small pelagics are diverse group of planktivorous fishes, attain maximum length of less than 35 centimetres and maximum weight of less than 500 grams and inhabit usually above the continental shelf, about 119 species of small pelagics belonging to 8 families and 32 genra have been reported from Indian waters, off which around 50 species supports major fisheries. Small pelagics, with an annual average of 7.33 lakh tonnes formed 50.9% of the total pelagic catches and 26.9% of the total marine catch of India during 1991 to 2012. Average annual small pelagic fish production increased from 4.74 lakh tonnes during 1994 to 11.92 lakh tonnes during 2012. Over last 22 years, marine fish production increased by 76% and small pelagic catches increased by 151%, growth rate in the production of pelagic fisheries has been conspicuously higher than that of the overall production. Small pelagics of commercial bearing are mainly the oil sardine, lesser sardines, anchovies and whitebaits and Indian mackerel, together contributed 99.41 % to the small pelagics and remaining 0.59% by half beaks and full beaks, flying fishes, other mackerels and unicorn cod.