Stereotypical peer beliefs and expectations about gender identity, gender role and gender-role conformity can limit participation in school activities, and reduce performance potential. The first of three linked studies for this book investigated whether gender stereotype threat caused performance decrement for adolescent males in choirs (a domain often considered inappropriate for males), and whether salience of stereotype threat could affect awareness of it. The findings of a second study revealed common attributes which enabled adolescent male choristers to remain engaged in choral music but did not protect them from the effects of stereotype threat. The third study revealed perceptions of gender held by non-targets of stereotype threat as well as by the targets, and explored how these perceptions were related to a wider array of school-based adolescent activities. The findings prepare the way to challenge deep-seated beliefs which lead to gender stereotyping and prejudice, by exploring the interface between beliefs and expectations about gender identity and attitudes towards gender role and gender-role conformity within different school cultures.