The mechanical response of concrete/rocks to tension and compression with a special consideration to the effect of bending moment on failure mechanisms is examined in this book. A new technique in strain measurement is developed with application in monitoring of the stability and deformation of underground and surface structures in civil, oil & gas, and mining industries as a substitute for geotechnical/geomechanical instrumentations for practical projects such as tunnels, shafts, caverns, slopes, roads, concrete dams, embankments, boreholes, wells, mine stopes, and open pits. The analytical approach based on the mathematical function of Bineshian strength/failure criterion (2000) led to the development of a new failure criterion, which considers the bending moment generated during compression providing linear and nonlinear envelopes capable of describing most compression and tension test data. New Concrete Damage Plasticity (CDP) constitutive model parameters are also developed that are applicable to numerical modelling of failure and post-failure response of concrete and rock structures. Empirical Concrete Quality Designation (CQD) is also introduced in this book.