Freshwater makes up only 2.5% of all the water on earth. Of this, groundwater comprises 99% of the earth’s available fresh water. And it is on this scarce resource that our future strongly relies. Thus, it is a necessity to study ground water potential for sustaining our future. In areas like the Main Ethiopia Rift, where tectonic activity complicated the search for groundwater, it is important to use the states of the art technology. In light of this fact, remote sensing and GIS tools have opened new vistas in water resources studies. Temporal data from remote sensing enables identification of groundwater aquifers and assessment of their changes, whereas, geographical information system enables integration of multi- thematic data. This book, therefore, provides a new approach using remote sensing, GIS, and statistics for identifying roles of geologic structures on groundwater flow and occurrence, in tectonically complex area. The analysis sheds light on grey areas of groundwater exploration and would benefit earth scientists, water well drilling companies, water resource managers, and anyone who is worrying about this scarce resource.