Cellulose produced by an acetic acid bacterium, Acetobacter xylinum i.e. microbial cellulose is expected for an alternative source of cellulose supply. A. xylinum produces cellulose microfibril in the form of non-crystalline state outside the cell during metabolism process. Thus the structure of this non-crystalline cellulose may be possible to control by using alternating agents during production. This book discuss the biogenesis of cellulose using A. xylinum and how its crystal structure can be controlled during synthesis. The synthesized structure is characterized by X-ray diffraction method, solid state NMR and FT-IR spectroscopies. Structure formation mechanism is also discussed. The idea will be helpful to control the cellulose structure and widen its application. Thus the book will be welcomed by all those involved in cellulose chemistry.