The textile industry is one of the major sources of large volumes of wastewater, especially from dyeing and finishing processes. Common contaminants in textile wastewater include materials containing biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, color and other soluble inorganic and organic substances. This book is packed with information about sources and hazardous effect of textile wastewater. Research work carried out and in progress all round world by different researchers are included. Details description for characterization and adsorptive treatment of textile wastewater using charcoal (activated and commercial grade) and natural materials (Bentonite, Fuller’s earth, China clay and Zeolite) for removal of COD, BOD, TDS and colour are mentioned. These data are tried to fit with Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherm model for designing and understanding an adsorption system. It demonstrated the usage of chemical coagulants like aluminum sulphate, potash alum and (Ferrous sulphate + Hydrogen peroxide) as well as chemical precipitants, lime and lime-soda, for treatment of textile wastewater.