Addressing rural poverty in developing countries is key to solving many developmental challenges. The mainstay of rural economies is agriculture. Enhancing agricultural productivity and creation of value through ago-processing activities is the tested way of improving rural livelihoods. Rural households, whether due to a development intervention or not, often have extra resources not required for immediate consumption at some point in the year. This book presents findings from a research undertaken to investigate how rural households benefiting from a development intervention use the accrued surplus. The research focused on beneficiaries of One Acre Fund Project in Western Kenya. The study reveals that rural households generate surplus owing to development interventions like the One Acre Fund. Despite gaining surplus, the rural households are not able to enjoy better livelihoods in the long run due to household characteristics, the type of surplus generated, the vulnerability in such households and cultural factors. This book will benefit all those working with the poor and use income generation as an intervention.