Human activities, particularly agriculture and urbanization, have led to increased nitrogen and phosphorus discharge to inland water systems. This condition leads nutrient enrichment which causes eutrophication. Eutrophication can profoundly alter the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems, potentially endangering human health, biodiversity and ecosystem sustainability. Moreover, phosphorus which is vital for life and fertilizer industry will be exhausted shortly in the near future and become a major challenge for the global society. Therefore, both nitrogen and phosphorus in wastewater should be properly treated before discharged to the water environment. In general,this book was designed for sustainable nutrient recovery and removal from wastewater using a novel Fluidized Bed Reactor-Membrane Bioreactor (FBR-MBR) combo system. The specific objectives focus on developing FBR that efficiently recover phosphorus as struvite at low and high phosphorus concentration, combing the FBR system with MBR system targeting nitrogen and COD removals.